Translations for Bundesland in the PONS Online German» English Dictionary: Bundesland, die alten/neuen Bundesländer. English Translation of “Bundesland” | The official Collins German-English Dictionary online. Over English translations of German words and phrases. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Bundesland' in LEOs English ⇔ German Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache.
english bundesland in - you thanksTransliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Wählen Sie ein Bundesland in der Liste aus. Kleverländisch ist ein Dialekt des Niederländischen, der im deutschen Bundesland Nordrhein-Westfalen gesprochen wird. Nicht überall, doch einige Bundesländer haben Gebühren eingeführt. Stimmt das so oder gehört es weg? We are working on continually optimizing the quality of our usage examples by improving their relevance as well as the translations. Yes, all over Germany. Province from the list. Two major international policy dialogue forums between Mexico and Germany and various specialist forums on climate-related issues have created a basis for further cooperation between the two countries both within and outside the Climate Alliance: The search engine displays hits in the dictionary entries plus translation examples, which contain the exact or a similar word or phrase. Living abroad Tips and Hacks for Living Abroad Euro casino aurich you need to know about life in a foreign country. Please select a Werder bremen gegen hamburg from the list. Not everywhere, fc bayern champions league trikot 2019 17 some states have introduced fees. Transliteration aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Bayern BR und …. Recent lookups click on a word to display the dictionary results again: My search history My favourites. Die Partnerschaften dienen dazu, die deutsche internationale Zusammenarbeit noch wirksamer und effizienter zu gestalten. These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate. We are sorry for the inconvenience. We're sorry, that ZIP code is not valid for the selected State. Jedes Bundesland und jeder Kanton hat eigene Zugriffsnummern. How do I find the new sentence examples? Falls Sie Steuerbehörden importieren, wählen Sie das Bundesland. Abhängig vom Bundesland kann es nötig sein den Einsatz von Erdwärmesonden bzw.
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For the purpose of the above list, a city is a community defined to be a city by Austrian law; a town is a community not defined to be a city.
Each Austrian state has an elected legislature , the Landtag , a state government, the Landesregierung , and a governor, the Landeshauptmann or Landeshauptfrau.
Elections are held every five years six years in Upper Austria. The state constitution, among other things, determines how the seats in the state government are assigned to political parties, with most states having a system of proportional representation based on the number of delegates in the Landtag in place.
The Landeshauptmann is always elected by the Landtag , meaning that it may be necessary to form a coalition in order to secure the election of a particular candidate.
Vienna , the capital of Austria, plays a double role as city and "Bundesland", meaning that the mayor serves as governor and the city council as Landtag at the same time.
Austrian federalism is largely theoretical as the states are granted few legislative powers. The federal constitution initially granted all legislative powers to the states, but many powers have been subsequently taken away, and only a few remain, such as planning and zoning codes, nature protection, hunting, fishing, farming, youth protection, certain issues of public health and welfare and the right to levy certain taxes.
All other matters, including but not limited to criminal law, civil law, corporate law, most aspects of economic law, defense, most educational matters and academia, telecommunications, and much of the healthcare system are regulated by federal laws.
This centralisation follows a historic model where central power during the time of the empire was largely concentrated in Vienna.
However, the state governor Landeshauptmann is in charge of the administration of much of federal administrative law within the respective state, which makes this post an important political position.
Furthermore, state competences include zoning laws, planning issues and public procurement on the regional level, which adds considerable weight to state politics.
As a practical matter, there have been cases where states have been able to block projects endorsed by the federal government, as in the case of a railway tunnel that was to be built below the Semmering.
Even so, Austrians tend to identify passionately with their respective Land and often defend what little independent governance their states have.
It is not unheard of for Austrians to consider themselves, for instance, Tyrolean first, Austrian second. In terms of boundaries, the present-day states arose from the crown lands of Austria-Hungary , an extensive multiethnic realm whose German-speaking nucleus emerged as the Republic of Austria after the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy at the end of World War I.
Similarly, the state of Carinthia descends from the Duchy of Carinthia , the state of Styria descends from the Duchy of Styria , and the state of Tyrol descends from the Princely County of Tyrol ; these states had to cede territories to Italy and Yugoslavia when Austria emerged in its present form.
Also, the state of Vorarlberg had been a semi-autonomous part of the County of Tyrol since The city-state of Vienna was a part of Lower Austria up until From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is part of a series on the Politics of Austria Constitution. National Council The Presidium: Brigitte Bierlein Vice President: Klagenfurt Lower Austria Governor: Innsbruck Upper Austria Governor: Innsbruck Vienna Mayor and Governor: From , when the French-occupied Saar Protectorate was returned and formed into the Saarland , the Federal Republic consisted of ten states, which are referred to as the " Old States " today.
West Berlin was under the sovereignty of the Western Allies and neither a Western German state nor part of one. However, it was in many ways de facto integrated with West Germany under a special status.
East Germany originally consisted of five states i. In , these states were abolished and the East was divided into 14 administrative districts called bezirke.
Just prior to the German reunification on 3 October , the East German states were reconstituted close to their earlier configuration as the five " New States ".
Henceforth, the 10 "old states" plus 5 "new states" plus the new state Berlin add up to current 16 states of Germany. Later, the constitution was amended to state that the citizens of the 16 states had successfully achieved the unity of Germany in free self-determination and that the Basic Law thus applied to the entire German people.
Article 23, which had allowed "any other parts of Germany" to join, was rephrased. It had been used in to reintegrate the Saar Protectorate as the Saarland into the Federal Republic, and this was used as a model for German reunification in The amended article now defines the participation of the Federal Council and the 16 German states in matters concerning the European Union.
The German states can conclude treaties with foreign countries in matters within their own sphere of competence and with the consent of the Federal Government Article 32 of the Basic Law.
Typical treaties relate to cultural relationships and economic affairs. Today, Freistaat is associated emotionally with a more independent status, especially in Bavaria.
However, it has no legal significance. All sixteen states are represented at the federal level in the Bundesrat Federal Council , where their voting power depends on the size of their population.
A new delimitation of the federal territory has been discussed since the Federal Republic was founded in and even before. Committees and expert commissions advocated a reduction of the number of states; academics Rutz , Miegel , Ottnad etc.
Territorial reform is sometimes propagated by the richer states as a means to avoid or reduce fiscal transfers. Article 29 reflects a debate on territorial reform in Germany that is much older than the Basic Law.
The Holy Roman Empire was a loose confederation of large and petty principalities under the nominal suzerainty of the emperor. Approximately states existed at the eve of the French Revolution in Territorial boundaries were essentially redrawn as a result of military conflicts and interventions from the outside: The debate on a new delimitation of the German territory started in as part of discussions about the new constitution.
Hugo Preuss , the father of the Weimar Constitution , drafted a plan to divide the German Reich into 14 roughly equal-sized states.
His proposal was turned down due to opposition of the states and concerns of the government. Article 18 of the constitution enabled a new delimitation of the German territory but set high hurdles: In fact, until there were only four changes in the configuration of the German states: The 7 Thuringian states were merged in , whereby Coburg opted for Bavaria , Pyrmont joined Prussia in , and Waldeck did so in Any later plans to break up the dominating Prussia into smaller states failed because political circumstances were not favourable to state reforms.
They became administrative regions of a centralised country. Three changes are of particular note: Between and , new states were established in all four zones of occupation: In , the military governors of the three Western Allies handed over the so-called Frankfurt Documents to the minister-presidents in the Western occupation zones.
Among other things, they recommended revising the boundaries of the West German states in a way that none of them should be too large or too small in comparison with the others.
As the premiers did not come to an agreement on this question, the Parliamentary Council was supposed to address this issue.
Its provisions are reflected in Article There was a binding provision for a new delimitation of the federal territory: Moreover, in territories or parts of territories whose affiliation with a Land had changed after 8 May without a referendum, people were allowed to petition for a revision of the current status within a year after the promulgation of the Basic Law paragraph 2.
If at least one tenth of those entitled to vote in Bundestag elections were in favour of a revision, the federal government had to include the proposal into its legislation.
Then a referendum was required in each territory or part of a territory whose affiliation was to be changed paragraph 3.
The proposal should not take effect if within any of the affected territories a majority rejected the change. In this case, the bill had to be introduced again and after passing had to be confirmed by referendum in the Federal Republic as a whole paragraph 4.
The reorganization should be completed within three years after the Basic Law had come into force paragraph 6. In their letter to Konrad Adenauer , the three western military governors approved the Basic Law but suspended Article 29 until such time as a peace treaty should be concluded.
Only the special arrangement for the southwest under Article could enter into force. In southwestern Germany, territorial revision seemed to be a top priority since the border between the French and American occupation zones was set along the Autobahn Karlsruhe-Stuttgart-Ulm today the A8.
If no agreement is reached, the revision shall be effected by a federal law, which shall provide for an advisory referendum.
With the Paris Agreements , West Germany regained limited sovereignty. This triggered the start of the one-year period as set in paragraph 2 of Article As a consequence, eight petitions for referendums were launched, six of which were successful:.
The last petition was originally rejected by the Federal Minister of the Interior in reference to the referendum of However, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled that the rejection was unlawful: The rejection of the plan by the Saarlanders was interpreted as support for the Saar to join the Federal Republic of Germany.
On October 27, , the Saar Treaty established that Saarland should be allowed to join Germany, as provided by the Grundgesetz constitution art.
Saarland became part of Germany effective January 1, The Franco-Saarlander currency union ended on 6 July , when the Deutsche Mark was introduced as legal tender in the Saarland.
Paragraph 6 of Article 29 stated that, if a petition was successful, a referendum should be held within three years. Since the deadline passed on 5 May without anything happening, the Hesse state government filed a constitutional complaint with the Federal Constitutional Court in October The complaint was dismissed in July on the grounds that Article 29 had made the new delimitation of the federal territory an exclusively federal matter.
At the same time, the Court reaffirmed the requirement for a territorial revision as a binding order to the relevant constitutional bodies.
The grand coalition decided to settle the petitions by setting binding deadlines for the required referendums. The referendums in Lower Saxony and Rhineland-Palatinate were to be held by 31 March , and the referendum in Baden was to be held by 30 June The quorum for a successful vote was set at one-quarter of those entitled to vote in Bundestag elections.
Paragraph 4 stated that the vote should be disregarded if it contradicted the objectives of paragraph 1. In his investiture address, given on 28 October in Bonn, Chancellor Willy Brandt proposed that the government would consider Article 29 of the Basic Law as a binding order.
An expert commission was established, named after its chairman, the former Secretary of State Professor Werner Ernst. After two years of work, the experts delivered their report in It provided an alternative proposal for the two regions: At the same time the commission developed criteria for classifying the terms of Article 29 Paragraph 1.
The capacity to perform functions effectively was considered most important, whereas regional, historical, and cultural ties were considered as hardly verifiable.
To fulfill administrative duties adequately, a population of at least five million per state was considered as necessary. After a relatively brief discussion and mostly negative responses from the affected states, the proposals were shelved.
Public interest was limited or nonexistent. The referendum in Baden was held on 7 June Hence, the two referendums in Lower Saxony were successful.
As a consequence, the legislature was forced to act and decided that both Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe should remain part of Lower Saxony.
The justification was that a reconstitution of Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe would contradict the objectives of paragraph 1.
An appeal against the decision was rejected as inadmissible by the Federal Constitutional Court. On 24 August , the binding provision for a new delimitation of the federal territory was altered into a mere discretionary one.
Paragraph 1 was rephrased, now putting the capacity to perform functions in the first place. The option for a referendum in the Federal Republic as a whole paragraph 4 was abolished.
Hence a territorial revision was no longer possible against the will of the population affected by it. The debate on territorial revision restarted shortly before German reunification.
While academics Rutz and others and politicians Gobrecht suggested introducing only two, three, or four states in East Germany, legislation reconstituted the five states that had existed until , however, with slightly changed boundaries.
Article 29 was again modified and provided an option for the states to "revise the division of their existing territory or parts of their territory by agreement without regard to the provisions of paragraphs 2 through 7 ".
Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.
By calling the document the Grundgesetz , rather than Verfassung constitution , the authors expressed the intention that it would be replaced by a true constitution once Germany was reunited as one state.
Amendments to the Grundgesetz generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of the parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
Despite the original intention, the Grundgesetz remained in effect after the German reunification in , with only minor amendments. The states are parliamentary republics and the relationship between their legislative and executive branches mirrors that of the federal system: The governments in Berlin , Bremen and Hamburg are the " senates ".
In the three free states of Bavaria , Saxony , and Thuringia , the government is the "state government" Staatsregierung ; and in the other ten states, the "Land government" Landesregierung.
The Senate was abolished following a referendum in The states of Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg are governed slightly differently from the other states.
The parliaments in the remaining 13 states are referred to as Landtag State Parliament. The city-states of Berlin and Hamburg are subdivided into boroughs.
The City of Bremen consists of two urban districts: Bremen and Bremerhaven , which are not contiguous.