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    Media files covered by free content licenses e. The Wikimedia Foundation is not a licensor of content, but merely a hosting service for the contributors and licensors of the Wikipedia.

    This position has been successfully defended in court. Because Wikipedia content is distributed under an open license, anyone can reuse or re-distribute it at no charge.

    The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms, both online and offline, outside of the Wikipedia website. Obtaining the full contents of Wikipedia for reuse presents challenges, since direct cloning via a web crawler is discouraged.

    Several languages of Wikipedia also maintain a reference desk , where volunteers answer questions from the general public.

    And the shift to mobile editing has lagged even more. One principal concern cited by The New York Times for the "worry" is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment.

    Directly after the posted web interview, the representatives stated that Wikimedia would be applying an all-inclusive approach to accommodate as many mobile access systems as possible in its efforts for expanding general mobile access, including BlackBerry and the Windows Phone system, making market share a secondary issue.

    In June Wikipedia launched en. In a newer mobile service was officially released, [] located at en. Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged.

    Many devices and applications optimize or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata See Wikipedia: Metadata , such as geoinformation.

    Wikipedia Zero is an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries. Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown both maintain editing Wikipedia with smart phones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors.

    Several years running the number of Wikipedia editors has been falling and Tom Simonite of MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this.

    Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo.

    In —18, after a barrage of false news reports, both Facebook and YouTube announced they would rely on Wikipedia to help their users evaluate reports and reject false news.

    Wikipedia is extremely popular. In February , The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites, stating "With 18 billion page views and nearly million unique visitors a month [ In addition to logistic growth in the number of its articles, [] Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in According to "Wikipedia Readership Survey ", the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36, with a rough parity between genders.

    Almost half of Wikipedia readers visit the site more than five times a month, and a similar number of readers specifically look for Wikipedia in search engine results.

    Wikipedia has also been used as a source in journalism, [] [] often without attribution, and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia.

    In July Wikipedia was the focus of a minute documentary on BBC Radio 4 [] which argued that, with increased usage and awareness, the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the word is one of a select band of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar Google , Facebook, YouTube that they no longer need explanation.

    On September 28, , Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the minister of cultural resources and activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama.

    He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia, "the seventh most consulted website", to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues.

    Already, the presidential entries are being edited, dissected and debated countless times each day. Active participation also has an impact. Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated audience.

    A working group led by Peter Stone formed as a part of the Stanford -based project One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence in its report called Wikipedia "the best-known example of crowdsourcing Wikipedia won two major awards in May In , readers of brandchannel.

    The award was presented to Wales by David Weinberger. In , Wikipedia was awarded both the annual Erasmus Prize , which recognizes exceptional contributions to culture, society or social sciences, [] and the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award on International Cooperation.

    Comedian Stephen Colbert has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term wikiality , meaning "together we can create a reality that we all agree on—the reality we just agreed on".

    In an episode of the television comedy The Office U. Perry Cox reacts to a patient who says that a Wikipedia article indicates that the raw food diet reverses the effects of bone cancer by retorting that the same editor who wrote that article also wrote the Battlestar Galactica episode guide.

    In , the comedic website CollegeHumor produced a video sketch named "Professor Wikipedia", in which the fictitious Professor Wikipedia instructs a class with a medley of unverifiable and occasionally absurd statements.

    The Dilbert comic strip from May 8, , features a character supporting an improbable claim by saying "Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia.

    Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles. In , comedian Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.

    On August 23, , the New Yorker website published a cartoon with this caption: In December , John Julius Norwich stated, in a letter published in The Times newspaper, that as an historian he resorted to Wikipedia "at least a dozen times a day", and had never yet caught it out.

    He described it as "a work of reference as useful as any in existence", with so wide a range that it is almost impossible to find a person, place or thing that it has left uncovered, and that he could never have written his last two books without it.

    Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects, which are also wikis run by the Wikimedia Foundation. These other Wikimedia projects include Wiktionary , a dictionary project launched in December , [] Wikiquote , a collection of quotations created a week after Wikimedia launched, Wikibooks , a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts, Wikimedia Commons , a site devoted to free-knowledge multimedia, Wikinews , for citizen journalism, and Wikiversity , a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities.

    In Wikivoyage , an editable travel guide, and Wikidata , an editable knowledge base, launched. The most obvious economic effect of Wikipedia has been the death of commercial encyclopedias, especially the printed versions, e.

    For instance, Chris Anderson , the editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine , wrote in Nature that the " wisdom of crowds " approach of Wikipedia will not displace top scientific journals , with their rigorous peer review process.

    There is also an ongoing debate about the influence of Wikipedia on the biography publishing business. Wikipedia has been widely used as a corpus for linguistic research in computational linguistics , information retrieval and natural language processing.

    In particular, it commonly serves as a target knowledge base for the entity linking problem, which is then called "wikification", [] and to the related problem of word sense disambiguation.

    A MIT study suggests that words used on Wikipedia articles end up in scientific publications. Studies related to Wikipedia has been using machine learning and artificial intelligence to support various operations.

    One of the most important areas - automatic detection of vandalism [] [] and data quality assessment in Wikipedia [] , which may include different measures for articles and infoboxes.

    A number of interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded.

    This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links , with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK.

    The user interface and part of the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until Several free-content, collaborative encyclopedias were created around the same period as Wikipedia e.

    Everything2 , [] with many later being merged into the project e. The h2g2 encyclopedia is relatively light-hearted, focusing on articles which are both witty and informative.

    Subsequent collaborative knowledge websites have drawn inspiration from Wikipedia. Some, such as Susning. Others use more traditional peer review , such as Encyclopedia of Life and the online wiki encyclopedias Scholarpedia and Citizendium.

    The latter was started by Sanger in an attempt to create a reliable alternative to Wikipedia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    This article is about the online encyclopedia. For other uses, see Wikipedia disambiguation. Free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit.

    For other encyclopedias, see Lists of encyclopedias. The logo of Wikipedia , a globe featuring glyphs from several writing systems. Main Page of the English Wikipedia on July 23, Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger.

    Number of English Wikipedia articles [62]. Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia. This section needs to be updated.

    Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Health information on Wikipedia.

    Parts of this article those related to d: Culture and the arts: For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. Wikipedia is not censored.

    Gender bias in Wikipedia. In cooperation with Wikimedia foundation. The word "wiki" itself is from the Hawaiian word for "quick".

    Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved October 15, Archived from the original on September 22, Retrieved September 6, Retrieved December 1, The sheer volume of content [ When compared to the top 3, educational reference sites in the US, Wikipedia is No.

    Retrieved December 16, Retrieved February 6, Retrieved October 9, Retrieved June 28, Wikipedia and e-Collaboration Research: Salt Lake City Weekly.

    Retrieved December 18, The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved May 5, Hawaiian Dictionary Revised and enlarged ed.

    University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved April 6, The New York Times. The study was cited in several news articles; e. Retrieved November 11, Archived from the original on June 14, Why did Wikipedia succeed while other encyclopedias failed?

    Retrieved June 5, Archived from the original on October 11, This Site Wants You". Retrieved November 22, Stallman June 20, Retrieved January 4, Retrieved December 26, Archived from the original on May 6, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on April 14, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved August 31, Archived from the original on March 31, Retrieved March 31, Neutral point of view , Wikipedia January 21, Archived from the original on October 6, The Power of Organizing Without Organizations.

    The International Symposium on Wikis. Archived from the original PDF on May 11, Retrieved April 19, Archived from the original PDF on April 3, Retrieved April 5, Retrieved November 30, New York Magazine, issue of November 25, , p.

    Retrieved December 4, Retrieved March 8, SOPA protest led 8 million to look up reps in Congress". Retrieved March 6, Retrieved January 19, Archived from the original on June 22, Rosen January 30, Retrieved February 9, Retrieved February 10, Retrieved December 28, The Lessons of Wikipedia.

    Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved December 5, Wikide-l Mailing list in German. Retrieved February 15, Retrieved August 21, Archived from the original PDF on September 25, Retrieved July 13, Link Spamming Wikipedia for Profit.

    Retrieved November 6, Archived from the original PDF on January 25, Retrieved January 24, Archived from the original PDF on October 25, Retrieved October 13, The World is Flat.

    Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved November 17, Archived from the original on July 8, Retrieved July 26, Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved February 7, Retrieved April 1, Retrieved February 13, The case of inclusionists versus deletionists".

    Retrieved March 25, Retrieved July 12, Retrieved September 24, Retrieved September 2, Archived from the original on August 26, Retrieved October 29, Coordination in Wikipedia" PDF.

    Retrieved June 27, The know-it-all Web site". There is a certain mindset associated with unmoderated Usenet groups [ There is a deeper problem [ Namely, as a community, Wikipedia lacks the habit or tradition of respect for expertise.

    As a community, far from being elitist, it is anti-elitist which, in this context, means that expertise is not accorded any special respect, and snubs and disrespect of expertise is tolerated.

    This is one of my failures: Those who were there will, I hope, remember that I tried very hard. Proceedings of the ACM.

    Archived from the original PDF on November 22, Retrieved January 31, Wisdom of the Crowd: Retrieved August 13, Archived from the original on August 3, Retrieved February 23, Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law.

    Journal of Legal Education. The New York Times Company. Retrieved October 28, Retrieved June 21, Retrieved February 1, Retrieved 1 February Retrieved May 19, Retrieved July 14, Retrieved October 30, Retrieved March 24, Retrieved February 3, Retrieved March 11, Alternative edit policies at Wikipedia in other languages.

    Retrieved August 18, Wikipedia Archived April 19, , at the Wayback Machine p. Archived from the original on November 25, Retrieved August 8, Retrieved March 19, Archived from the original on January 16, Retrieved July 22, Archived copy as title link , accessed July 21, Retrieved April 22, Archived from the original on March 18, A Group Weblog on Social Software.

    Archived from the original on March 16, Archived from the original on June 25, Retrieved May 1, Retrieved July 2, Retrieved October 10, The Wall Street Journal.

    The Kenneth Lay Chronicles". Retrieved November 1, Retrieved January 28, Retrieved October 8, Legal Research in a Nutshell 10th ed. Archived from the original on November 7, Retrieved October 17, Communications of the ACM.

    Retrieved January 27, Archived from the original on April 21, Retrieved January 29, The Atlantic , March 5, Retrieved June 14, Proceedings of the ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work.

    Wikipedia and the Future of the Past". The Journal of American History. Archived from the original on April 25, Retrieved August 11, Center for History and New Media.

    Retrieved September 30, Retrieved December 31, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Retrieved March 7, Retrieved November 23, Retrieved July 29, Retrieved October 24, Wikipedia narratives about national histories i are skewed towards more recent events recency bias and ii are distributed unevenly across the continents with significant focus on the history of European countries Eurocentric bias.

    University of Massachusetts — Amherst. Retrieved November 26, How Wikipedia administrators mold public opinion". ACM Transactions on the Web. Retrieved May 10, The Sydney Morning Herald.

    Archived from the original on September 2, Retrieved May 14, Co-founder grassed the outfit to the FBI". Retrieved April 29, Retrieved November 10, Archived from the original on October 30, Retrieved June 9, Retrieved October 14, December 26, , p.

    Archived from the original PDF on March 3, Internal search function returns to service". Retrieved February 26, Retrieved July 6, Retrieved July 28, Retrieved July 30, The Wikipedia vandalism police, Apple analysts, and more".

    Retrieved September 5, Abuse Filter is enabled". Archived from the original on November 16, The Wikipedia Revolution , chapter Then came the Bots , pp.

    Retrieved October 31, Site internals, configuration, code examples and management issues" PDF. Elsevier Computer Networks 53 11 , pp.

    Retrieved December 8, Scherer and David Ross, [] Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance , 3rd ed.

    Jaffe, Manuel Trajtenberg, pp. Retrieved October 18, Retrieved May 21, Retrieved March 9, Retrieved November 2, Retrieved May 4, Archived from the original on March 8, Retrieved September 9, Retrieved June 1, Retrieved July 7, Retrieved September 8, Archived from the original on September 9, Archived from the original on August 4, Wie aktiviere ich JavaScript?

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    This is known as neutral point of view NPOV. They do this by experiencing flow i. Editors in good standing in the community can run for one of many levels of volunteer stewardship: Despite the name, administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent certain persons from making disruptive edits such as vandalism.

    Fewer editors become administrators than in years past, in part because the process of vetting potential Wikipedia administrators has become more rigorous.

    Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeatedly making opposite changes to an article, known as edit warring.

    In order to determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums, [notes 7] or seek outside input through third opinion requests or by initiating a more general community discussion known as a request for comment.

    The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted.

    Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted, [] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate.

    Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies for example, if the new content is considered biased.

    Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.

    Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "Talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.

    Wikipedians sometimes award one another virtual barnstars for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.

    Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification. The English Wikipedia has 5,, articles, 35,, registered editors, and , active editors.

    An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past thirty days. Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments , may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions.

    Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: A study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia [ A study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others, [] [] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.

    Several studies have shown that most of the Wikipedia contributors are male. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown , gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.

    There are currently language editions of Wikipedia also called language versions , or simply Wikipedias. Distribution of the 49,, articles in different language editions as of 1 February [].

    Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries as is the case for the English edition.

    These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences e. Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.

    Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".

    It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition.

    For example, articles about small towns in the United States might only be available in English, even when they meet notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

    Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those edition do not allow fully automated translation of articles.

    A study published by PLoS ONE in also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world.

    On March 1, , The Economist in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia" cited a trend analysis concerning data published by Wikimedia stating that: The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42, editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2, editors up or down.

    The attrition rates for editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, were cited as peaking in at approximately 50, editors, which has dropped to 30, editors as of the start of At the quoted trend rate, the number of active editors in English Wikipedia has lost approximately 20, editors to attrition since , and the documented trend rate indicates the loss of another 20, editors by , down to 10, active editors on English Wikipedia by if left unabated.

    Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In , columnist and journalist Edwin Black criticized Wikipedia for being a mixture of "truth, half truth, and some falsehoods".

    Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black noted in and respectively how articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.

    In , the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.

    As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.

    Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites, and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.

    A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell , cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".

    Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work , preferring primary sources ; [] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations.

    In February , an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi , although without realizing the articles might change.

    Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the Wikipedia site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information.

    In , researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.

    Roy Rosenzweig , a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.

    Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history".

    While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill , he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style.

    Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is per cent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage.

    The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level.

    To assess Wikipedia articles it can be used various quality measures related to credibility , completeness , objectivity , readability , relevance , style and timeliness.

    Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article.

    Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia. The policy has sometimes proved controversial: The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China , [] and Pakistan [] amongst other countries.

    A study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth from July to January in each field: These numbers refer only to the quantity of articles: Through its " Wikipedia Loves Libraries " program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.

    A study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics.

    There was a greater concentration of females in the People and Arts category, while males focus more on Geography and Science.

    Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven.

    Africa is most underrepresented. An editorial in The Guardian in noted that women porn stars are better covered than women writers as a further example.

    When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors.

    In , Wales noted that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, which predominantly consists of highly educated young males in the developed world see previously.

    Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally, for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions. Biases of its own may include over-emphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.

    Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford , in , studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.

    Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs".

    The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. Bush , Anarchism and Muhammad. Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information of graphic content.

    Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content such as Feces , Cadaver , Human penis , Vulva , and Nudity contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

    The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation , illustrations of zoophilia , and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles.

    It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In April , Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.

    If we did, we would remove it. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status.

    One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a " public figure " in the eyes of the law.

    A particular problem occurs in the case of an individual who is relatively unimportant and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

    In January , a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic , aka "Tron", a deceased hacker.

    Wikipedia has a " Volunteer Response Team " that uses the OTRS system to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties.

    This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project. Wikipedia has been described as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.

    Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation , a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks.

    The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission. We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome. Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director the Wikimedia Foundation in June Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates.

    These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand.

    Several MediaWiki extensions are installed [] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software. The site currently uses Lucene Search 2.

    Computer programs called bots have been used widely to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.

    An anti-vandal bot tries to detect and revert vandalism quickly and automatically. According to Andrew Lih , the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.

    Wikipedia receives between 25, and 60, page requests per second, depending on time of day. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia.

    To increase speed further, rendered pages are cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated, allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most common page accesses.

    Wikipedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of Linux servers mainly Ubuntu. In accordance with growing amounts of incoming donations exceeding seven digits in as recently reported, [49] the Foundation has reached a threshold of assets which qualify its consideration under the principles of industrial organization economics to indicate the need for the re-investment of donations into the internal research and development of the Foundation.

    There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education.

    When the project was started in , all text in Wikipedia was covered by the GNU Free Documentation License GFDL , a copyleft license permitting the redistribution, creation of derivative works, and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work.

    This made it a poor choice for a general reference work: In December , the Creative Commons license was released: The license gained popularity among bloggers and others distributing creative works on the Web.

    The Wikipedia project sought the switch to the Creative Commons. In April , Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June The handling of media files e.

    Some language editions, such as the English Wikipedia, include non-free image files under fair use doctrine, while the others have opted not to, in part because of the lack of fair use doctrines in their home countries e.

    Media files covered by free content licenses e. The Wikimedia Foundation is not a licensor of content, but merely a hosting service for the contributors and licensors of the Wikipedia.

    This position has been successfully defended in court. Because Wikipedia content is distributed under an open license, anyone can reuse or re-distribute it at no charge.

    The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms, both online and offline, outside of the Wikipedia website. Obtaining the full contents of Wikipedia for reuse presents challenges, since direct cloning via a web crawler is discouraged.

    Several languages of Wikipedia also maintain a reference desk , where volunteers answer questions from the general public. And the shift to mobile editing has lagged even more.

    One principal concern cited by The New York Times for the "worry" is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment.

    Directly after the posted web interview, the representatives stated that Wikimedia would be applying an all-inclusive approach to accommodate as many mobile access systems as possible in its efforts for expanding general mobile access, including BlackBerry and the Windows Phone system, making market share a secondary issue.

    In June Wikipedia launched en. In a newer mobile service was officially released, [] located at en.

    Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged. Many devices and applications optimize or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata See Wikipedia: Metadata , such as geoinformation.

    Wikipedia Zero is an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries.

    Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown both maintain editing Wikipedia with smart phones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors.

    Several years running the number of Wikipedia editors has been falling and Tom Simonite of MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this.

    Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo.

    In —18, after a barrage of false news reports, both Facebook and YouTube announced they would rely on Wikipedia to help their users evaluate reports and reject false news.

    Wikipedia is extremely popular. In February , The New York Times reported that Wikipedia is ranked fifth globally among all websites, stating "With 18 billion page views and nearly million unique visitors a month [ In addition to logistic growth in the number of its articles, [] Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in According to "Wikipedia Readership Survey ", the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36, with a rough parity between genders.

    Almost half of Wikipedia readers visit the site more than five times a month, and a similar number of readers specifically look for Wikipedia in search engine results.

    Wikipedia has also been used as a source in journalism, [] [] often without attribution, and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia.

    In July Wikipedia was the focus of a minute documentary on BBC Radio 4 [] which argued that, with increased usage and awareness, the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the word is one of a select band of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar Google , Facebook, YouTube that they no longer need explanation.

    On September 28, , Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the minister of cultural resources and activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama.

    He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia, "the seventh most consulted website", to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues.

    Already, the presidential entries are being edited, dissected and debated countless times each day. Active participation also has an impact.

    Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated audience. A working group led by Peter Stone formed as a part of the Stanford -based project One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence in its report called Wikipedia "the best-known example of crowdsourcing Wikipedia won two major awards in May In , readers of brandchannel.

    The award was presented to Wales by David Weinberger. In , Wikipedia was awarded both the annual Erasmus Prize , which recognizes exceptional contributions to culture, society or social sciences, [] and the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award on International Cooperation.

    Comedian Stephen Colbert has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term wikiality , meaning "together we can create a reality that we all agree on—the reality we just agreed on".

    In an episode of the television comedy The Office U. Perry Cox reacts to a patient who says that a Wikipedia article indicates that the raw food diet reverses the effects of bone cancer by retorting that the same editor who wrote that article also wrote the Battlestar Galactica episode guide.

    In , the comedic website CollegeHumor produced a video sketch named "Professor Wikipedia", in which the fictitious Professor Wikipedia instructs a class with a medley of unverifiable and occasionally absurd statements.

    The Dilbert comic strip from May 8, , features a character supporting an improbable claim by saying "Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia.

    Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles. In , comedian Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.

    On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.

    On August 23, , the New Yorker website published a cartoon with this caption: In December , John Julius Norwich stated, in a letter published in The Times newspaper, that as an historian he resorted to Wikipedia "at least a dozen times a day", and had never yet caught it out.

    He described it as "a work of reference as useful as any in existence", with so wide a range that it is almost impossible to find a person, place or thing that it has left uncovered, and that he could never have written his last two books without it.

    Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects, which are also wikis run by the Wikimedia Foundation. These other Wikimedia projects include Wiktionary , a dictionary project launched in December , [] Wikiquote , a collection of quotations created a week after Wikimedia launched, Wikibooks , a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts, Wikimedia Commons , a site devoted to free-knowledge multimedia, Wikinews , for citizen journalism, and Wikiversity , a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities.

    In Wikivoyage , an editable travel guide, and Wikidata , an editable knowledge base, launched. The most obvious economic effect of Wikipedia has been the death of commercial encyclopedias, especially the printed versions, e.

    For instance, Chris Anderson , the editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine , wrote in Nature that the " wisdom of crowds " approach of Wikipedia will not displace top scientific journals , with their rigorous peer review process.

    There is also an ongoing debate about the influence of Wikipedia on the biography publishing business. Wikipedia has been widely used as a corpus for linguistic research in computational linguistics , information retrieval and natural language processing.

    In particular, it commonly serves as a target knowledge base for the entity linking problem, which is then called "wikification", [] and to the related problem of word sense disambiguation.

    A MIT study suggests that words used on Wikipedia articles end up in scientific publications. Studies related to Wikipedia has been using machine learning and artificial intelligence to support various operations.

    One of the most important areas - automatic detection of vandalism [] [] and data quality assessment in Wikipedia [] , which may include different measures for articles and infoboxes.

    A number of interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded.

    This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links , with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK.

    The user interface and part of the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until Several free-content, collaborative encyclopedias were created around the same period as Wikipedia e.

    Everything2 , [] with many later being merged into the project e. The h2g2 encyclopedia is relatively light-hearted, focusing on articles which are both witty and informative.

    Subsequent collaborative knowledge websites have drawn inspiration from Wikipedia. Some, such as Susning. Others use more traditional peer review , such as Encyclopedia of Life and the online wiki encyclopedias Scholarpedia and Citizendium.

    The latter was started by Sanger in an attempt to create a reliable alternative to Wikipedia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    This article is about the online encyclopedia. For other uses, see Wikipedia disambiguation. Free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit.

    For other encyclopedias, see Lists of encyclopedias. The logo of Wikipedia , a globe featuring glyphs from several writing systems. Main Page of the English Wikipedia on July 23, Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger.

    Number of English Wikipedia articles [62]. Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia. This section needs to be updated.

    Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Health information on Wikipedia.

    Parts of this article those related to d: Culture and the arts: For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia.

    Wikipedia is not censored. Gender bias in Wikipedia. In cooperation with Wikimedia foundation. The word "wiki" itself is from the Hawaiian word for "quick".

    Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved October 15, Archived from the original on September 22, Retrieved September 6, Retrieved December 1, The sheer volume of content [ When compared to the top 3, educational reference sites in the US, Wikipedia is No.

    Retrieved December 16, Retrieved February 6, Retrieved October 9, Retrieved June 28, Wikipedia and e-Collaboration Research: Salt Lake City Weekly.

    Retrieved December 18, The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved May 5, Hawaiian Dictionary Revised and enlarged ed.

    University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved April 6, The New York Times. The study was cited in several news articles; e.

    Retrieved November 11, Archived from the original on June 14, Why did Wikipedia succeed while other encyclopedias failed? Retrieved June 5, Archived from the original on October 11, This Site Wants You".

    Retrieved November 22, Stallman June 20, Retrieved January 4, Retrieved December 26, Archived from the original on May 6, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on April 14, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved August 31, Archived from the original on March 31, Retrieved March 31, Neutral point of view , Wikipedia January 21, Archived from the original on October 6, The Power of Organizing Without Organizations.

    The International Symposium on Wikis. Archived from the original PDF on May 11, Retrieved April 19, Archived from the original PDF on April 3, Retrieved April 5, Retrieved November 30, New York Magazine, issue of November 25, , p.

    Retrieved December 4, Retrieved March 8, SOPA protest led 8 million to look up reps in Congress". Retrieved March 6, Retrieved January 19, Archived from the original on June 22, Rosen January 30, Retrieved February 9, Retrieved February 10, Retrieved December 28, The Lessons of Wikipedia.

    Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved December 5, Wikide-l Mailing list in German. Retrieved February 15, Retrieved August 21, Archived from the original PDF on September 25, Retrieved July 13, Link Spamming Wikipedia for Profit.

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    Retrieved March 25, Retrieved July 12, Retrieved September 24, Retrieved September 2, Archived from the original on August 26, Treff LU - MA.

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